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COMMITTEES

Sir Mutha MUN Conference

UNHRC

United Nations Human Rights Council


The Human Rights Council is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening , promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and making recommendations on them.

Agenda

The on-going humanitarian situation in Afghanistan


Greetings Delegates,

It is indeed a great honour and a privilege to welcome you to the United Nation Human Security Council simulation at SMMUN, 2022.


The agenda at hand is vast and a successful discussion on it would necessitate the mutual participation of all of you. It shall be your choice to decide the direction in which you want to take this committee ahead. This agenda demands to be seen from more than one perspective. To help guide your research and give you an overview of the topics, the dais has prepared the following background guide. It is, however, recommended that you go beyond the information provided in this guide! Delegates are strongly encouraged to research their country’s stance on particular issues related to this topic, and what solutions they might propose in committee.


At this moment that you might be experiencing pangs of anxiety and excitement while you are into your preparation for committee. We guess that the first timers might be a little nervous about meeting new people, or perhaps the experienced ones are a little eager to get into that fancy formal attire. You must have started visualizing yourself speaking in front a large crowd of familiarly unknown faces. We value your involvement to redefine diplomacy and thus, with utmost sincerity we have tried to prepare this study guide so that you can best represent your country stepping into the shoes of diplomats, and more importantly your ideas at the simulation of the Human rights council Kindly utilize this document as a guide, and not as an encyclopedia, as it does not contain all the information, analysis or concepts related to the agenda.


We look forward to meeting each one of you at the conference .


Best Regards

Harsha Vardhini A.S

Chair person

Committee History

Human rights are inalienable entitlements established not by law, but by human birth right, and the history of human rights has been shaped by all major world events and by the struggle for dignity, freedom and equality everywhere. However, it was only with the signing of the Charter of the United Nations (1945), the subsequent establishment of the United Nations (UN) in the shadow of World War II, and the call to ―reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights,‖ where human rights finally achieved formal, universal recognition. The UN has remained committed to ―promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all‖ through charter-based and treaty-based mechanisms .


Charter-based mechanisms derive from the provisions of the Charter, most commonly as subsidiary bodies like the Human Rights Council. Treaty-based mechanisms are the human rights covenants and conventions, along with their respective treaty bodies, which take the force of law and monitor the implementation of the provisions of the treaties.


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, 1948), a treaty-based mechanism, was adopted by the General Assembly as a ―common standard of achievement‖ for all peoples and countries to pursue the protection and promotion of human rights. After decades of standing alone, this cornerstone document was joined by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1976), and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) and its two Optional Protocols to comprise the International Bill of Rights. It was not just these documents which guided human rights in the UN system, but also the Commission on Human Rights, which manifested as ―the main subsidiary organ of the United Nations dealing with human rights. The Commission on Human Rights The Commission on Human Rights (CHR) was established by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in early 1946 for the promotion of human rights, as envisioned in Article 68 of the Charter and was given the duty of revising and modifying the UDHR. The Commission spent its first two decades following a decidedly more absentee policy, operating primarily as a treaty-writing body, and it was not until the late 1960s that it began publicly monitoring human rights violations and taking interventionist action, developing a tradition of adopting resolutions on issues in specific countries.


A body of 53 members, the CHR met once a year for six weeks in Geneva to evaluate instances of human rights violations, spur investigations, appoint experts to assist governments in restoring full enjoyment of human rights, and submit recommendations, proposals and reports to ECOSOC. The value of protecting and promoting human rights continued to grow but the integrity of the Commission itself received ―severe criticism‖ for its politicization, selective monitoring, and membership. The construction of this new council was a progressive step towards a more impartial and effective human rights body in the United Nations.


Mandate:

Recognizing the need to preserve and build on the Commission’s achievements and to redress its shortcomings, the HRC was created to ensure stronger system-wide coherence and preserve the value of human life ―in larger freedom.‖ The Council was charged with, inter alia, assuming the roles and responsibilities of the Commission, promoting the full implementation of human rights obligations, responding to human rights emergencies, undertaking a universal periodic review, and making recommendations to States and the General Assembly (GA).


In short ,The Council’s mandate is to promote ―universal respect for the protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all‖ and ―address situations of violations of human rights, including gross and systematic violations, and make recommendations thereon."


Governance , Structure and Membership

The HRC is a charter-based subsidiary body of the General Assembly established by resolution 60/251 of 3 April 2006.16 It consists of forty-seven members elected directly and individually by secret ballot of the GA for a membership based on equitable geographical distribution. It convenes a minimum of three times a year, with a total annual duration of no fewer than ten weeks. Aside from the mandate and general structure of the Council, the majority of the institution’s features were left up to the Council to formulate in their first year’s Institution-Building Process. The improvement upon the Commission’s Special and Complaint Procedures, and the development of the Universal Periodic Review procedure were all developed and adopted by HRC resolution 5/1, the Institution Building Package, on 18 June 2007

Function and Powers

The functions and powers of the HRC were developed to allow it to make an efficient and impartial impact on the status of human rights. The aforementioned Special Procedures of the Council direct the individual human rights experts and working groups to report and advise on human rights’ situations from a thematic or country specific perspective while remaining impartial, objective, and independent of the UN. Actions of this body include: undertaking country visits; gathering information and analysis in order to contribute to the development of international human rights standards; sending letters of allegation to States for human rights violations; raising public awareness of abuses; and introducing annual reports to the Council and the General Assembly.


The Universal Periodic Review process, established in HRC resolution 5/1, is a mechanism aimed at improving civil, political, economic, social, and cultural human rights’ situations in all Member States. Each state must submit a national report for review every four years, and forty-two States are reviewed each year by its national leadership, the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, and working groups composed of the members of the HRC, and headed by the Council’s President. The outcome report is adopted by the Council and lists the recommendations the state under review will have to implement before the next review. The Complaint Procedure allows for an examination of confidential complaints, which form a consistent pattern of gross and reliably attested violations of human rights and freedoms. Once the Council receives a consistent pattern of proven human rights violations it can then decide to examine the conditions of human rights in the country concerned.

Conventions, Treaties and Documents:

Following is the list of documents that need to be perused by all delegates before they come to the council and kindly understand that you need to know the following aspects regarding Note: The following documents hold the international framework on human rights. Feel free to read the ones which you feel is relevant to the agenda. You need not memorize any articles or rules of any convention or treaty but should know what the document has to say in various situations that may arise in the committee.


  • International Bill of Rights
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  • Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  • Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
  • Aiming at the abolition of the death penalty.

Universal Human Rights Instruments:

In addition to the International Bill of Rights and the core human rights treaties, there are many other universal instruments relating to human rights. A non-exhaustive selection is listed below. (Search this up verbatim on Google you will end up In the respective documents )

1)World Conference on Human Rights And Millennium Assembly

2)Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action

3)United Nations Millennium Declaration

4)Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Minorities:

● Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

● Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169)

● Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities

5) Prevention of Discrimination

● Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)

● Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice

● Convention against Discrimination in Education

● Protocol Instituting a Conciliation and Good Offices Commission to be responsible for seeking a settlement of any disputes which may arise between States Parties to the Convention against Discrimination in Education

● World Conference against Racism, 2001 (Durban Declaration and Programme of Action

6) Rights of Women:

● Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

● Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW-OP)

● Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict

● Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women

7) Rights of the Child:

● Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

● Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (CRC-OPSC)

● Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (CRC-OPAC)

8) Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: Protection of Persons Subjected to Detention or Imprisonment:

● United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules) .

● Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners.

● Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment .

● United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty.

● Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment .

● Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) .

● Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading

Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT).

● Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

● Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment .

● safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty.

● Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials.

● Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials.

● United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules).

● United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules).

● Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System.

● United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines) .

● Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power.

● Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary .

● Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers.

● Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors .

● Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions.

● Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.

● Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation.

● International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.

● United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women .

● Offenders (the Bangkok Rules) .

● Updated Set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity .

9) Nationality, Statelessness, Asylum And Refugees:

● Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness .

● Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons.

● Convention relating to the Status of Refugees .

● Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees .

● Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals who are not nationals of the country in which they live .

10) Humanitarian Law:

● Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.

● Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.

● Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I).

● Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II) .

Nature of Proof and Evidence

Documents from the following sources will be considered as credible proof for any allegations made in committee or statements that require verification:


1. Reuters: Appropriate Documents and articles from the Reuters News agency will be used to corroborate or refute controversial statements made in committee.


2. UN Document: Documents by all UN agencies will be considered as sufficient proof. Reports from all UN bodies including treaty-based bodies will also be accepted.


3. Government Reports: Government Reports of a given country used to corroborate an allegation on the same country will be accepted as proof

Brief Overview on the Agenda

Even before the withdrawal of international forces and diplomatic missions and the takeover by the Taliban in August 2021, Afghanistan was one of the world's largest and most complex humanitarian emergencies .The humanitarian situation has worsened in the months since the withdrawal, with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) projecting that by the middle of 2022, Afghanistan could face ―universal poverty,‖ with 97% of Afghans living below the World Bank-designated international poverty line of $1.90 a day. Decades of war, recurring natural hazards, chronic poverty, drought, widespread food insecurity and the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in millions of Afghans in need of humanitarian assistance – more than half the country’s population.


In addition to the political, social and economic shocks from conflict and the withdrawal of international forces, disaster risk is becoming an increasing driver of underlying need. A national drought was officially declared in June 2021 and is the worst in more than 30 years .The most at-risk populations, according to the 2022 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP), include the urban poor, minority groups, undocumented recent returnees, children, the elderly, households headed by women, people with disabilities, marginalized ethnic groups and those exposed to forced, multiple and often extended periods of displacement

Key Definitions in the Agenda: Minorities

While the exact interpretation of the term minority is varied worldwide and subjected to change based on geopolitical conditions, there is some consensus in defining the same with a broader perspective, as "a group of individuals who are numerically smaller in number in that given area". Under International law, in accordance with Article 1 of the United Nations Minority Declaration, the term is broadly based on nationalistic, cultural, religious, gender and linguistic identity and rightfully proclaims that it is the fundamental duty of the state to preserve their existence and protect them from exploitation. There is no globally accepted definition for the term minority and has been interpreted in several ways in the past based on convenience and political scenarios that prevail in the region. The difficulty in coming up with a unanimous definition for the same, lies in the complexity of the different methods under which one can be categorized as a minority. For instance, the 1977 definition for minorities given by Francesco Capotorti, Special Rapporteur of the United Nations is as follows: "a group numerically inferior in terms of population and in a non-dominant position whose ideology differs from the majority of the population in that area".


Thus, while varied definitions narrow mindedly put sections of society into boxes of preconceived notions, the most globally acceptable explanation which encompasses people from all walks of life is on a numerical basis alone. Let us now classify minorities on various aspects to further illustrate their importance in the current scenario.

1. Minority based on religion:

In a particular geographical location, if the members of a certain religion are numerically inferior, they would constitute religious minorities. Religion divides people fundamentally, based on their ideologies and beliefs, and hence form a volatile part of any society if not addressed properly. All over the world, rampant Islamophobia has resulted in the suppression of the Muslim community globally, with more nations taking aggressive stances towards the community such as the United States and its policy under President Donald Trump. This religious divide can also be traced back to the anti-Semitic views of the Nazis during World War II, where the intensity of the hatred and bigotry resulted in consequences that can even be felt today.

2. Minority based on Race:

The discrimination of people based on race is time old and while its existence has been curbed in the recent times, it is still rampant in many areas resulting in widespread violence. For instance, the discrimination of the blacks in the United States is a prime example of undermining minority rights in a society. While the discrimination on the basis of race has been on the decline in the recent years, racial disparities continue to exist especially in the US justice system. Studies show that African American men are incarcerated 6 times as often as the white men.

3. Minority based on Gender:

The discrimination of humans on their gender has been globally observed for many decades now and is of concern to us. Recent trends however show that there is an improvement in human rights of women, but in many parts of the world, this has yet to change. With the rising importance of feminism and involvement of women in all walks of life, it is only a matter of time that their existence as a minority is overturned. Some countries that follow the Sharia law, such as Saudi Arabia continue to discriminate women and deny them even their fundamental rights. Such atrocities have been debated repeatedly in the Human Rights Council, but no conclusive action has been taken towards the same.

4. Minority based on Culture:

While people are discriminated based on their religion, certain sects of these religion might be oppressed further than the others. For instance, it is not uncommon to note the divide between Shia and Sunni Muslims within the Islamic community and this divide produces disparity in provision of rights for these sects of society. Such individuals who are culturally different and numerically inferior are also minorities, and their rights are often violated.

5. Minority based on Language:

A linguistic minority converses in a different language as compared to the rest of the population. They can be widely classified as:


i) Permanent residents: People who reside in an area where their language isn't widely spoken.


ii) Transitory: People who enter into a linguistically different area in search of opportunity.


Linguistic minorities pose a unique problem where in, their existence is distributed unevenly throughout a nation. For instance, in a country like India, there is a variation in linguistic minorities all over the country. This ranges from 3.44% in the state of Kerala, to 48.48% in the state of Goa. Thus, this uneven distribution of these minorities poses significant challenges in securing their rights and preventing their exploitation

6. Minority based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity:

This classification based on sexual orientation and gender identity is relatively newer, and their inclusion has been debated for long by people all over the world. Members of the LGBT community fall under this category and their discrimination is rampant as seen in society today.


While in some parts of the world such as the Scandinavian countries, there is no discrimination against members of this community, in most other nations including India, same sex relationships are considered illegitimate. They are seen as objectionable by culture and religion and even punishable by law. Thus, it is only natural that discrimination follows suit, and they constitute some of the most oppressed parts of our society.

Refugee:

A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal, and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries. More than half of all refugees worldwide come from just three countries: Syria, Afghanistan, and South Sudan.

Internally Displaced Person:

People forced to flee their homes but never cross an international border. These individuals are known as Internally Displaced Persons, or IDPs. These individuals seek safety anywhere they can find it—in nearby towns, schools, settlements, internal camps, even forests and fields. IDPs, which include people displaced by internal strife and natural disasters, are the largest group that UNHCR assists. Unlike refugees, IDPs are not protected by international law or eligible to receive many types of aid because they are legally under the protection of their own government. Countries with some the largest internally displaced populations are Colombia, Iraq and South Sudan. ASYLUM SEEKER: When people flee their own country and seek sanctuary in another country, they apply for asylum – the right to be recognized as a refugee and receive legal protection and material assistance. An asylum seeker must demonstrate that his or her fear of persecution in his or her home country is well-founded.

Difference Between Refugees and IDP:

An IDP (Internally Displaced Person) is somebody forced to flee their home to another part of their own country. A refugee is somebody forced to flee their home and seek refuge in another country. According to the 1951 Convention on Human Rights, a refugee is somebody who… ―owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable…to return to it.‖ Whereas an IDP has no status in international law. They have the same human rights as any other person in the world, and as civilians they are theoretically protected in armed conflict, but the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has no responsibility for them, and no other nation or international body is required to assist them. While IDPs make up almost two thirds of global populations seeking safety from armed conflict and violence, they have far fewer rights than refugees.

Rights of Internally Displaced Persons

Like all human beings, internally displaced persons enjoy human rights that are articulated by international human rights instruments and customary law. In situations of armed conflict, moreover, they enjoy the same rights as other civilians to the various protections provided by international humanitarian law. The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, created in 1998, restate and compile existing international human rights and humanitarian law germane to the internally displaced and also attempt to clarify grey areas and gaps in the various instruments with regard to situations of particular interest to the internally displaced. The Guiding Principles note that arbitrary displacement in the first instance is prohibited (Principles 5-7). Once persons have been displaced, they retain a broad range of economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights, including the right to basic humanitarian assistance (such as food, medicine, shelter), the right to be protected from physical violence, the right to education, freedom of movement and residence, political rights such as the right to participate in public affairs and the right to participate in economic activities (Principles 10-23). Displaced persons also have the right to assistance from competent authorities in voluntary, dignified and safe return, resettlement or local integration, including help in recovering lost property and possessions. When restitution is not possible, the Guiding Principles call for compensation or just reparation (Principles 28-30). As a crucial element of sovereignty, it is the Governments of the states where internally displaced persons are found that have the primary responsibility for their assistance and protection. The international community's role is complementary. At the international level, no single agency or organization has been designated as the global lead on protection and assistance of internally displaced persons. Rather, all are called upon to cooperate with each other to help address these needs pursuant to the "collaborative approach".

Taliban Government in Afghanistan:

On September 7, 2021, the Taliban announced a ―caretaker government‖ to rule Afghanistan. The announcement came weeks after the Taliban, a Sunni Islamist extremist movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, retook effective control of the country with the collapse of the U.S.-backed former Afghan government and its security forces amid the U.S. military departure. The Taliban’s return to power comes almost 20 years after a U.S.-led military campaign deposed the group in response to its harboring of the international Islamist terrorist group Al Qaeda, which carried out the September 11, 2001, attacks. The Taliban regrouped and began an insurgency that by 2005 was challenging U.S. and international military forces, along with the new Afghan government and its nascent security forces, in parts of the country. After a 2009-2011 ―surge,‖ U.S. force levels decreased as Afghan forces took responsibility for security nationwide. Deep and abiding divisions among Afghan political elites, along with widespread corruption, undermined the government’s authority and strengthened the Taliban, which continued to make battlefield gains.


In the February 2020 U.S.-Taliban agreement, signed in Doha, Qatar, the Taliban agreed to take unspecified action to prevent other groups (including Al Qaeda) from using Afghan soil to threaten the United States and its allies, in return for the full withdrawal of international forces from Afghanistan by May 2021. In 2021, President Joseph Biden postponed the U.S. withdrawal date by several months; two weeks before that withdrawal was to conclude, the Taliban entered Kabul on August 15, 2021, the culmination of a rapid nationwide military advance that shocked many in the United States and Afghanistan. Other than an Islamic State affiliate, no viable Afghan armed opposition to the Taliban appears to exist as of November 2021, though some anti-Taliban Afghan leaders have sought U.S. support. Afghanistan is different in many ways from the country the Taliban last ruled in 2001. Women have been active participants in many parts of Afghan society; protections for them, and ethnic and religious minorities, were enshrined in the country’s 2004 constitution. The Taliban are likely to reverse that progress, though their early actions suggest at least some moderation from their extremely repressive 1996-2001 rule. The Taliban takeover is also likely to affect terrorist groups in Afghanistan differently. The local Islamic State affiliate, a Taliban adversary, has escalated its attacks since the Taliban takeover, challenging the group’s legitimacy, but Al Qaeda, a long time Taliban partner, may be empowered. The Taliban takeover has reshaped regional dynamics, presenting challenges and opportunities for U.S. adversaries and competitors

Timeline

11 September 2001

Al-Qaeda, led by Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan, carries out the largest terror attack ever conducted on US soil. Four commercial airliners are hijacked. Two are flown into the World Trade Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon building in Washington, and one crashes into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people are killed.

7 October 2001

A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda facilities in Afghanistan. Targets include Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad. The Taliban, who took power after a decade-long Soviet occupation was followed by civil war, refuse to hand over Bin Laden. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter aircraft are destroyed.

13 November 2001 : Fall of Kabul

The Northern Alliance, a group of anti-Taliban rebels backed by coalition forces, enters Kabul as the Taliban flee the city .By the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have either fled or been neutralised. Other cities quickly fall.

26 January 2004 :New constitution

After protracted negotiations at a ―loya jirga‖ or grand assembly, the new Afghan constitution is signed into law. The constitution paves the way for presidential elections in October 2004.

7 December 2004 :Hamid Karzai becomes president

Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban groups around Kandahar before becoming presidentHamid Karzai, the leader of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, becomes the first president under the new constitution. He serves two five-year terms as president.

May 2006: UK troops deployed to Helmand

British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold in the south of the country. Their initial mission is to support reconstruction projects, but they are quickly drawn into combat operations. More than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the course of the conflict.

17 February 2009

US President Barack Obama approves a major increase in the number of troops sent to Afghanistan. At their peak, they number about 140,000.US troops in intense combat operations in the south of the country The so-called ―surge‖ is modelled on US strategy in Iraq where US forces focussed on protecting the civilian population as well as killing insurgent fighters.

2 May 2011 :Osama Bin Laden killed

Bin Laden is traced to a compound located less than a mile from a Pakistani military academy. The leader of al-Qaeda is killed in an assault by US Navy Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Laden’s body is removed and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by the CIA. The confirmation that Bin Laden had been living on Pakistani soil fuels accusations in the US that Pakistan is an unreliable ally in the war on terror.

23 April 2013 :Death of Mullah Omar

The founder of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His death is kept secret for more than two years. The Taliban leader is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his right eye in the 1980s.According to Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of health problems at a hospital in the Pakistani city of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was in the country.

28 December 2014: Nato ends combat operations

At a ceremony in Kabul, Nato ends its combat operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the US withdraws thousands of troops. Most of those who remain focus on training and supporting the Afghan security forces.

2015 :Taliban resurgence

The Taliban launch a series of suicide attacks, car bombings and other assaults. The parliament building in Kabul, and the city of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants begin operations in Afghanistan. Kabul's international airport is struck on 10 August 2015

25 January 2019: Death toll announcement

Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says more than 45,000 members of his country’s security forces have been killed since he became leader in 2014. The figure is far higher than previously thought.

29 February 2020: US signs deal with Taliban

The US and the Taliban sign an ―agreement for bringing peace‖ to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. The US and Nato allies agree to withdraw all troops within 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawal

13 April 2021: Date for final withdrawal

US president Joe Biden announces that all US troops will leave Afghanistan by 11 September 2021.

16 August 2021: Taliban return to power

In just over a month, the Taliban sweep across Afghanistan, taking control of towns and cities all over the country, including Kabul. Afghan security forces collapse in the face of the Taliban advance.

Aftermath

In terms of lives lost, it is obviously not easy to say exactly. The number of coalition casualties is much better recorded than Taliban and Afghan civilians. Research by Brown University estimates losses in the Afghan security forces at 69,000. It puts the number of civilians and militants killed at about 51,000 each. More than 3,500 coalition soldiers have died since 2001 - about two-thirds of them Americans. More than 20,000 US soldiers have been injured.According to the UN, Afghanistan has the third-largest displaced population in the world.Since 2012, some five million people have fled and not been able to return home, either displaced within Afghanistan or taking refuge in neighbouring countries. Brown University research also puts the US spending on the conflict - including military and reconstruction funds in both Afghanistan and Pakistan - at $978bn (£706bn) up to 2020.


Following 40 years of war and an already dire situation of increasing hunger, economic decline, price rises in food and other essential needs, and rising poverty over the past several years; in 2021 the people of Afghanistan faced intensified conflict, the withdrawal of international forces and then the takeover of the country by the Taliban in August. The resulting political, social and economic shocks have reverberated across the country with a massive deterioration of the humanitarian and protection situation in the 4th quarter of 2021 and the outlook for 2022 remaining profoundly uncertain. Afghanistan’s population is estimated to be 41.7m in 2021, of whom 51 per cent are men and 49 per cent are women. A staggering 47 per cent of the population are under 15 years old, giving Afghanistan one of the highest youth populations in the world. With a projected population growth rate of 2.3 per cent per annum, one of the steepest in the region, the country’s financially dependent youth population is set to grow even further. Population growth, internal displacement, higher-than usual rates of cross-border return are contributing to increased strain on limited resources, livelihood opportunities and basic services, as well as an increase in protection risks especially for most at risk groups. It is estimated that there are more than 2.6 million Afghan refugees worldwide and more than 5.8 million people displaced by conflict and disasters inside the country since 2012.


Women face an uncertain future. Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen says the group will respect the rights of women and minorities "as per Afghan norms and Islamic values".The militants had declared an amnesty across Afghanistan and said it wanted women to join its government. But there are fears over women's freedom to work, to dress as they choose, or even to leave home alone under Taliban rule.


Another major fear is that the country will once again become a training ground for terrorism. Taliban officials insist that they will fully adhere to the US deal and prevent any group from using Afghan soil as a base for attacks against the US and its allies. They say they aim only to implement an "Islamic government" and will not pose a threat to any other country. But many analysts say the Taliban and al-Qaeda are inseparable, with the latter's fighters heavily embedded and engaged in training activity. It is also important to remember that the Taliban are not a centralised and unified force. Some leaders may want to keep the West muted by not stirring up trouble but hardliners may be reluctant to break links with al-Qaeda. Just how powerful al-Qaeda is and whether it could now rebuild its global network is also unclear. Then there is the regional branch of the Islamic State group - ISKP (Khorasan Province) - which the Taliban oppose. Like al-Qaeda, ISKP has been degraded by the US and Nato but could use the post-withdrawal period to regroup. Its fighter numbers could be only between a few hundred and 2,000 but it may try to gain footholds in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and parts of Tajikistan, which could be a serious regional concern.


Scope of Analysis of This committee could possibly look at a likely evolution of humanitarian needs in Afghanistan throughout 2022 with an inter-sectoral approach to the analysis that recognizes the multi-dimensional nature of people’s needs across sectors. While The situation beyond 2022 remains extremely uncertain with a wide- range of risks that could upset planning assumptions of this committee, The political takeover by the Taliban and the possible range of geo-political responses, as well as transformed security dynamics have made the scope of discussion being vast and a questionable utility. The scope discussion is limitless as it can just involve the Crimes against Humanity done by Taliban against commoners or just the scoio-economic impact of this whole on-going situation and how we can tackle and help uplift the rights of refuges and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in this situation .

Guide to Research

As mentioned previously, the background guide merely serves as a starting point for a delegate’s research.. By first beginning with reading the background guide, delegates get a sense of what issues they should be looking to address collectively and conduct the appropriate research to understand these issues within the context of the countries they represent and how the precedent set by their countries can be applied to the global solution.


To prepare for this committee, begin by reading through resources that provide a clear understanding of the country’s social, economic, and political stances, which serve as the foundation for its foreign policy. The ―foreign policy‖ of a country is the set of political values and beliefs that delegates operate on when collaborating with other countries. Understanding the foreign policy of your country will be useful in addressing the topics of debate in this committee and are the compass for determining your position in committee. Some beginning resources can be found in the ―suggested resources’’ page of this background guide and I would highly recommend using them for this first step in the research process. After reading the background guide and conducting elementary research, you have hopefully gained a general sense of the global issue and your country’s perspectives on it.


The next step is determining how the issues translate to your country’s national and local levels. Learn about what the issues pertaining to the debate at hand look like within your respective country, as a country’s social, political, economic, and even religious positions can affect how the issues reveal themselves within the population. Then, assess the advantages and disadvantages of the current solutions derived by the state to address the issues. Thoroughly researching the current solutions to find out what works and what does not reveals the areas for potential improvement within the country’s current policy infrastructure.

Intoduction to Chairperson

Harsha Vardhini is currently pursuing law from School of Excellence in Law .According to her, Muns are one of the best platforms where people especially students can put forward their opinions and get educated about the world issues . She also served as the Deputy Secretary General of Soel MUN

Research Pointers:

1. What is the general problem faced by refugees and IDPs in Afghanistan, how can we solve them issue specifically ?

2. Which set/genre of problems faced by them go unnoticed?

3. Previous steps taken by concerned governments for overcoming those problems?(i.e., past actions even before the Taliban era)

4. Humanitarian aids approved and implemented on date and it’s scope for development

5. Difficulties faced in implementation of suggested reforms and aids

6. Solutions and Country Stands that play a major role bridging humanitarian assistance

7. Regional laws that act as a barrier for humanitarian assistance implementation

8. Organisations involved in spreading awareness and assistance along with the impact factor created.

References

• UNHRC Mandate : http://bit.ly/2l46xv5

• 1951 Refugee Convention :http://bit.ly/2pHuZHe

https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/ga11919.doc.htm

• IDP Guiding principles : http://bit.ly/2pCxdYm

http://archive.ipu.org/PDF/publications/Displacement-e.pdf

http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/b1udhr.htm

http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/y4gcpcp.htm

• http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/b3ccpr.htm

• IDP: Guiding Principles http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/GuidingPrinciplesonInternalDisplacement.htm

• Sample Draft Resolution : http://bit.ly/2F1PW3c